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    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities Vol.39 No.4 August 2023
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (4): 0-0.  
    Abstract94)      PDF(pc) (31305KB)(44)       Save
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    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities Vol.39 No.3 June 2023
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (3): 1-6.  
    Abstract80)      PDF(pc) (23963KB)(82)       Save
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    Growing Knowledge of Stem Cells as a Novel Experimental Model in Developmental Toxicological Studies
    REN Zhihua, KU Tingting, REN Mengyao, LIANG Jiefeng, NING Xia, XU Hanqing, REN Danqin, ZHOU Qunfang, SANG Nan
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (3): 342-360.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3039-8
    Abstract75)            Save
    The increasing production and extensive application of chemicals have led to their unintended release and contamination in the environment, posing a hazardous threat to wildlife and human health. Numerous studies have demonstrated that developmental toxicity could be induced by various emerging chemicals, causing abnormal embryonic and placental development, adverse pregnancy outcomes, obesity, and dysfunction of lipid metabolism in neonates. Given the currently-available experimental technology for developmental toxicological studies, an in vitro model based on stem cells showed promising performance in high-throughput screening of the early-stage developmental toxicity of emerging chemicals. In this review, the deleterious effects of environmental pollutants on stem cells were systemically assorted from the aspects of cytological dysfunction, self-renewal impairment, perturbation in embryoid body(EB) formation, and disruption of committed lineage differentiation. The toxicological data on the molecular level, including the altered expressions of gene and protein biomarkers, epigenomic regulation, and enhanced oxidative stress, were collected and summarized to provide the mechanism explanation for the link between environmental pollutant exposure and unfavorable phenotypes in stem cells. The advantage of the stem cell model in developmental toxicological studies was specifically emphasized. And the perspectives for stem cells were ultimately highlighted in the research field of environmental toxicology, especially developmental toxicology during the early stage of life.
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    Nano/Sub-nanomaterial Chemistry
    WANG Xun
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (4): 525-526.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-4000-6
    Abstract73)            Save
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    High-entropy Metal Oxide-polyoxometalate-palladium Sub-1 nm Nanowires for Semi-hydrogenation Reaction of Alkynes
    LIU Junli, NIE Siyang, WU Liang, WANG Xun
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (4): 624-629.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3112-3
    Abstract73)            Save
    Palladium and palladium-based nanomaterials have shown great catalytic potential in the semi-hydrogenation reaction of alkynes. However, the scarcity of noble metals, harsh reaction conditions, selectivity and over reduction of products limit the development of these kinds of catalysts. It is a smart strategy to fabricate the single-site palladium-based catalyst by introducing palladium into one-dimensional(1D) hybrid sub-1 nm nanowires (SNWs). Herein, we successfully synthesized several kinds of high-entropy metal oxide-polyoxometalate-Pd(HEO-POM-Pd) SNWs, which as the catalysts performed excellent catalytic activity and stereoselectivity in the semi-hydrogenation reaction of alkynes at room temperature, providing a promising avenue to design and prepare noble metal single-site catalysts at the sub-1 nm scale.
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    Dipyridyl Azo Compound 4,4'-Azopyridine as a Potential Coating Material for Toilet Sanitizer
    WANG Qiwei, JIANG Lu, LAM Pik-Ling, CHUI Chung-Hin, and WONG Wai-Yeung
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (6): 864-869.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3109-y
    Abstract71)            Save
    Good toilet hygiene can reduce the risk of pathogenic transmission. During flushing, pathogenic bacteria can be spread by the water droplets, especially in the toilet seat. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the frequently occurring Gram-negative bacterial pathogens found in the toilet seats. In this study, we investigated the potential anti-E. coli activity of some azobenzene compounds. Among them, compound 2, with the heterocyclic nitrogen in both phenyl rings, showed the strongest antibacterial effect on E. coli, with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 80 μg/mL and the minimum bactericidal concentration of 320 μg/mL. Compound 2 displayed a comparative zone of clearance [(14.50±2.29) mm] to that of ampicillin [(13.17±1.76) mm]. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay suggested that compound 2 might induce the loss of bacteria via the oxidative stress by eliciting the generation of intracellular ROS. We further examined the potential cytotoxicity of compound 2 to the human skin HaCaT cells. Compound 2-treated skin cells showed a good maintenance of cellular morphology and a clear definition of cell nuclei, with a satisfactory cell viability (ca. 90%) at 80 μg/mL. Overall, compound 2 would be a possible antibacterial coating agent for the surface sanitizer of the toilet seats to inhibit the growth of E. coli.
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    Role of Conformational Entropy in Complex Macromolecular Systems
    DAI Xiaobin, WAN Hai-Xiao, ZHANG Xuanyu, WEI Wenjie, CHEN Wenlong, ZHANG Longgui, LI Juan, YAN Li-Tang
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (5): 709-718.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3174-2
    Abstract68)            Save
    Conformation is the key to revealing the physical characteristics of macromolecular systems and receives tremendous interest from the fields of polymer physics and biological materials. The conformational entropy, related to the number of conformations of the macromolecule, plays a predominant role in the structural formation, transition, and dynamics of macromolecular systems. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the research, development and applications of the conformational entropy in complex macromolecular systems. We begin by discussing the physical origin of the conformational entropy based on statistical mechanics of macromolecules in classical polymer physics, and then introduce the recent progress on the predictive modeling of the conformational entropy, associated with a variety of typical macromolecular systems. Furthermore, we also highlight several principles and rules, which have been harnessed to manipulate the structural organization of complex macromolecular systems through the conformational entropy. We anticipate that this review will further promote fundamental research in polymer physics, and offer intriguing prospects for applications in complex macromolecular systems including biomacromolecules, grafted nanoparticles, and polymer nanocomposites.
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    Recent Advances in Biomass-derived Porous Carbon Materials: Synthesis, Composition and Applications
    ZHAI Ziqi, LU Yumiao, LIU Guangyong, DING Wei-Lu, CAO Bobo, HE Hongyan
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2024, 40 (1): 3-19.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-024-3259-6
    Abstract66)            Save
    Porous carbon materials (PCMs) play a pivotal role in diverse applications, such as energy storage, adsorption, catalysis, environmental remediation, and microwave adsorption. The selection of carbon precursors, in particular, is crucial for tailoring porous structures with specific functionalities. Biomass, with its rich carbon feedstock, abundant availability, renewability, and versatile structures, has emerged as a promising precursor for porous carbon material synthesis. This review comprehensively summarizes the recent advances in biomass-derived porous carbon materials (BPCMs) encompassing synthetic strategy, morphology, structural composition, and multiple applications. We first review synthetic approaches aiming at regulating porosity, followed by morphological and composition features of BPCMs, with a special emphasis on elucidating the dimensional clarification and heteroatom doping effects. The discussion then extends to the wide-ranging applications of BPCMs, covering energy-related applications and CO2 adsorption to environmental remediation. Finally, the review outlines the existing challenges and prospects in the field. In summary, this review systematically describes BPCMs and provides valuable guidance for researchers to select and synthesize BPCMs that meet specific functional requirements.
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    Recent Advances in Helical Polyisocyanide-based Block Copolymers: Preparation, Self-assembly and Circularly Polarized Luminescence
    ZHOU Li, CHEN Kun, ZHOU Xing-Yu, WU Zong-Quan
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (5): 719-725.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3170-6
    Abstract65)            Save
    Polyisocyanides and their block copolymers have widespread applications in many fields due to their unique helix and self-assembly properties. At first, the latest progress in the preparation of helical polyisocyanide-based block copolymers via the method of one-pot sequential controlled synthesis and stepwise polymerization was highlighted in this minireview. Various categories of helical polyisocyanide-based copolymers including amphiphilic block copolymers, UV-response block copolymers, π-conjugated block copolymers, etc., have been prepared successfully. Moreover, recent advances in the self-assembly and circularly polarized luminescence performance of amphiphilic and π-conjugated helical polyisocyanide-based copolymers have been introduced, respectively. We hope this minireview will not only inspire more interest in developing helical polyisocyanide-based copolymers, but also encourage further progress in the field of building artificial functional materials.
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    Analysis of Emerging Contaminants in Surface Water, Aquaculture Ponds and Wastewater Treatment Facilities in the Taige Canal Basin
    CHENG Xue, JIANG Xinshu, LIU Liquan, HUANG Jun
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (3): 516-524.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3073-6
    Abstract64)            Save
    Emerging contaminants(ECs) have aroused great concerns due to their widespread presence as well as their potential health and ecological risks. Currently monitoring data about ECs in Chinese rural areas are still limited. In this study, Taige Canal basin was selected as a typical rural area for a pilot study. The occurrence of ECs, including pharmaceutical and personal care products(PPCPs), pesticides, plasticizers and flame retardants, in surface water and aquaculture ponds, as well as in wastewater treatment facilities, was comprehensively investigated. The effectiveness of rural decentralized wastewater treatment facilities and centralized wastewater treatment plant(WWTP) in removing ECs was also analyzed. Among 126 commonly used pesticides for target analysis, 25 compounds were detected in surface water with high frequency of >80%. Besides, 55 PPCPs, 21 pesticides and 18 other industrial products were identified by non-target analysis using high resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS). Totally 18 compounds were detected in surface water with a frequency of >60% and 6 of them were found in all samples, including irbesartan, valsartan, propazine, buprofezin, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) and tri-(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate(TCPP), with mean concentrations of 3022, 195, 125, 218, 3738 and 545 ng/L, respectively. There are 29 compounds(11 PPCPs, 8 pesticides and 10 other industrial products) detected in water samples from the aquaculture ponds, of which 13 compounds were found in all three ponds. The removal efficiencies of ECs in wastewater treatment facilities are generally limited, except valsartan(82%-86%), nobiletin(100%) and diisodecylphthalate(100%) were found to be significantly removed.
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    Recent Advances in CO2 Reduction Reaction to Value-added C1 Products by Single-atom Catalysts
    LI Boyang, OU Honghui, CHEN Shenghua, SU Ya-Qiong, WANG Dingsheng
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (4): 527-544.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3001-9
    Abstract64)            Save
    The CO2reduction reaction driven by sustainable electrical energy to value-added hydrocarbons is highly attractive because it can address both energy and environmental issues. The precise and rational development of corresponding electrocatalysts is of great importance to these kinds of reactions. Single-atom catalysts with unique electronic structures and coordination environments have become promising candidates, which may offer enhanced electrocatalytic performance. Herein, we summarize the recent development in the efficient fabrication of single-atom catalysts and their further application in CO2 reduction. The various strategies for SACs preparation and characterization methods are highlighted to give a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between metal active sites and catalytic ability. The reaction mechanisms of electronic CO2 reduction over single-atom catalysts are elaborated. Finally, the challenges and perspectives for the implementation of single-atom catalysts in CO2 reduction are discussed.
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    Rare-earth Nanomaterials for Potential Brain Disease Theranostics
    WEI Zheng, LIU Yawei, WANG Fan, LIU Kai, ZHANG Hongjie
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (4): 545-556.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3125-y
    Abstract62)            Save
    Brain diseases with high mortality cause severe threats to human health and life. Non-invasively high-resolution imaging technologies contribute to obtaining detailed brain structures to figure out the pathogenesis. In addition, timely visualization benefits the early warning and diagnosis of brain diseases. Rare-earth-based nanoparticles(RENPs) with excellent optical properties are highlighted for the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases in recent years. Their tunable down-conversion fluorescence enables the high-resolution NIR-II fluorescence imaging of the brain. Besides, the excellent up-conversion luminescence can be applied to designing fluorescent probes to visualize brain diseases. Importantly, the surface of RENPs can be tailored to cross the blood-brain barrier, target the disease site in the brain and deliver drugs specifically, providing an effective tool for treating brain diseases. Excitingly, RENPs can be combined with emerging therapies, such as phototherapy, gas therapy and sonodynamic therapy, significantly improving the therapeutic effects of glioblastoma. This review summarizes the rational design, functionalization strategies and application of RENPs in brain imaging, diagnosis and therapy. Furthermore, a brief perspective on existing challenges and further development of RENPs is presented.
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    Nanoclusters as Synthons for Unit-Cell-Size Comparable One-Dimensional Nanostructures
    FU Hao, DU Yaping
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (4): 568-579.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3121-2
    Abstract62)            Save
    The unit-cell-size comparable ultrathin nanowires(UCNWs) with typical cross-sectional dimension of around one nanometer, comparable to the unit-cell-size of inorganic materials, exhibit unique properties different from traditional nanomaterials. However, their facile and general synthesis is still a great challenge, since it not only demands the anisotropic growth in one direction, but also needs to completely restrict the growth in the other two dimensions. In this review, we summarize and introduce a strategy to prepare UCNWs using nanoclusters as synthons, which is promising to be a general synthesis method for UCNWs. We start with the introduction to the definition and characteristics of UCNWs. Subsequently, the key problems of UCNWs synthesis are analyzed from the perspective of thermodynamics and the strategy of using nanoclusters as synthons is proposed. Then, the related works about synthesis of UCNWs using magic-size clusters(MSCs) and polyoxometalate(POM) clusters as synthons are introduced and carefully discussed. Finally, challenges and opportunities are also elaborately discussed. This review is anticipated to provide a panoramic sketch and future directions toward the general synthesis of UCNWs.
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    Cyclodextrin Based Host-Guest Inclusion Complex, an Approach to Enhancing the Physicochemical and Biopharmaceutical Application of Poorly Water-soluble Drugs
    Muhammad INAM, Moshirian-Farahi SAREH SADAT, and Wenjie CHEN
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (6): 857-861.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3204-0
    Abstract62)            Save
    Host-guest inclusion complexes have been extensively studied for drug delivery applications. The host molecule, typically cyclodextrin, creates a cavity, in which the guest molecule, such as a drug, can be encapsulated. This encapsulation can protect the drug from degradation, improve its solubility and stability, and enhance its bioavailability. Moreover, host-guest inclusion complexes can facilitate targeted drug delivery by selectively releasing drugs at the site of action. Various techniques, such as covalent bonding, non-covalent interactions, and self-assembly have been used to form these complexes. Host-guest inclusion complexes have shown great potential for improving the efficacy and safety of drug delivery systems. This mini review summarizes the application and recent progress of the cyclodextrin-based host-guest inclusion complex, highlighting the enhanced physicochemical and biopharmaceutical application of pharmaceutical drugs via formulation of its inclusion complex.
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    Vertical 3D Printed Pd/TiO2 Arrays for High Efficiency Photo-assisted Catalytic Water Treatment
    FU Chenhao, LI Dan, ZHANG Jianwei, GUO Wei, YANG He, ZHAO Bo, CHEN Zhaomin, FU Xin, LIANG Zhiqiang, and JIANG Lin
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (6): 891-901.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3182-2
    Abstract59)            Save
    Catalytic degradation of organic contaminants is at the frontier of water treatment due to its selectivity, energy savings, and ability to convert harmful contaminants into harmless or even valuable chemical products for recycling. However, achieving sufficiently high performance in the catalytic removal of organic contaminants for practical application is still extremely challenging. Herein, we report a Pd-decorated TiO2 (Pd/TiO2) hierarchical vertical array for fast and efficient catalytic water treatment. Such a forest- like Pd/TiO2 vertical array demonstrates the following distinct advantages over conventional planar or bulk catalytic systems: 1) abundant anchoring sites for nanocrystals loading; 2) high sunlight absorption; 3) efficient mass transfer channels for the reactants and products. As a proof of concept, the Pd/TiO2 array demonstrated rapid and efficient photo-assisted catalytic reduction of high concentrations of 4-nitrophenol wastewater (2 g/L, ca. 14.38 mmol/L) and its feasibility for continuous flow wastewater treatment. The turnover frequency (TOF) value of the Pd/TiO2 array was up to 8.00 min-1, which was approximately 4.2 times that of planar Pd/TiO2 film with the same area (1.91 min-1). Our strategy of incorporating nanocatalysts with a hierarchical vertical array provides a promising approach to boosting the catalytic performance of catalysts for different chemical reactions.
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    Sub-nanomaterials for Photo/Electro-catalytic CO2 Reduction: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities
    WANG Xinyi, ZHAO Zhenwei, ZAHRA Kiran, LI Junjun, ZHANG Zhicheng
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (4): 580-598.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3123-0
    Abstract56)            Save
    With the increasing dilemma of energy crisis and climate change caused by excessive greenhouse gas emissions, it is an effective way to design low-cost and efficient catalysts to recycle CO2 into value-added chemicals and fuels to solve these problems. Downsizing catalysts close to a single crystal cell, sub-nanomaterials(SNMs) show unique size-dependent properties and great potential applications in CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) compared with conventional nanomaterials. In this review, basic principles of CO2RR and brief classification of SNMs are elucidated. Then, recent advances of SNMs in photo/electro-catalytic CO2 reduction are comprehensively summarized. Finally, the current challenges and future outlooks are emphasized to pave the development of CO2RR on SNMs. It is anticipated that this review would provide new insights to this unique scale and guided information on rational construction of SNMs for photo/electro-catalytic CO2RR.
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    Rational Design of Nanostructured MnO2 Cathode for High-performance Aqueous Zinc Ion Batteries
    LI Qi, ZHAO Yajun, WANG Yueyang, Abdalla Kovan KHASRAW, ZHAO Yi, SUN Xiaoming
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (4): 599-611.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3126-x
    Abstract55)            Save
    Aqueous Zn-MnO2 batteries hold a promising potential for grid-scale energy storage applications due to their intrinsic safety, low fabrication cost, environmental friendliness and high theoretical energy densities. Developing novel nanostructured cathode materials with high discharge voltage, large capacity and excellent structural stability is one of the critical ways to achieve the high-performance aqueous Zn batteries. Enlighten by that, comprehending principles of materials design and identifying the challenges faced by the state-of-the-art MnO2 hosts are vital preconditions. Rather than a simple comparison, this review mainly focuses on design strategies regarding to MnO2-based materials, including defect engineering, interfacial engineering, and pre-intercalation engineering. In addition, the energy storage mechanisms of MnO2-based cathodes are discussed to clarify the complicated chemical reactions during battery cycling. Challenges and perspectives are outlined to guide the further development of advanced Zn-MnO2 batteries.
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    RNA-sequencing-based Gene Expression Profile Revealing Breast Tumor Development Induced by Exposure of Bisphenol S
    ZHOU Peng, XIAO Yu, ZHOU Xin, LIU Jianjun, ZHAO Chao
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (3): 441-448.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3032-2
    Abstract54)            Save
    Aberrant biological information occurs naturally at exposure to bisphenol A or its alternatives, which was associated with the occurrence and development of breast cancer. However, the potential molecular variation in gene expression during the breast tumor development is still unclear. Herein, high throughput RNA sequencing(RNA-seq) and bioinformatics analysis were used to investigate the variation of tumor-mRNA profile exposed with BPS5 (5 μg/kg bw/day) or BPS50(50 μg/kg bw/day) in tumor development-associated MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse model. Meanwhile, we analyzed the dose-effects of bisphenol S(BPS) and BPS-induced tumor development on the gene level exhaustively. In dose-effect aspects of BPS, the increased concentration of BPS significantly changed the numbers and enrichment pathway of differentially expressed genes(DEGs), especially the enrichment pathways involved in up-regulated genes including ribosome, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor(PPAR) signaling pathway and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway. In effects of BPS exposure to tumor development, expression of IgκC, Zfp385b, Cldn10, Pgr and Snord14d has changed significantly throughout the tumor development. Gene ontology(GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG) results obtained from BPS-induced tumor development showed that the functional classifications were intensively altered with an extension of time in high-dose BPS groups. The acquired DEGs and pathway information could help with the accurate exploration of molecular mechanisms of tumor development, screening of molecular targets of breast cancer, and toxicological evaluation of environmental pollutants.
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    Toxicological Effects of Secondary Air Pollutants
    XIANG Wang, WANG Weigang, DU Libo, ZHAO Bin, LIU Xingyang, ZHANG Xiaojie, YAO Li, GE Maofa
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (3): 326-341.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3050-0
    Abstract54)            Save
    Secondary air pollutants, originating from gaseous pollutants and primary particulate matter emitted by natural sources and human activities, undergo complex atmospheric chemical reactions and multiphase processes. Secondary gaseous pollutants represented by ozone and secondary particulate matter, including sulfates, nitrates, ammonium salts, and secondary organic aerosols, are formed in the atmosphere, affecting air quality and human health. This paper summarizes the formation pathways and mechanisms of important atmospheric secondary pollutants. Meanwhile, different secondary pollutants’ toxicological effects and corresponding health risks are evaluated. Studies have shown that secondary pollutants are generally more toxic than primary ones. However, due to their diverse source and complex generation mechanism, the study of the toxicological effects of secondary pollutants is still in its early stages. Therefore, this paper first introduces the formation mechanism of secondary gaseous pollutants and focuses mainly on ozone’s toxicological effects. In terms of particulate matter, secondary inorganic and organic particulate matters are summarized separately, then the contribution and toxicological effects of secondary components formed from primary carbonaceous aerosols are discussed. Finally, secondary pollutants generated in the indoor environment are briefly introduced. Overall, a comprehensive review of secondary air pollutants may shed light on the future toxicological and health effects research of secondary air pollutants.
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    Ordered Arrangement of Different Metals in Discrete and Infinite Building Blocks for Heterometallic Metal-Organic Frameworks Construction
    XU Huoshu, YAN Yu, WU Yichen, WANG Junyi, TANG Yi, and LI Qiaowei
    Chemical Research in Chinese Universities    2023, 39 (6): 902-906.   DOI: 10.1007/s40242-023-3200-4
    Abstract54)            Save
    Construction of sophisticated metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with multiple kinds of metals is essential for further advancement of porous materials toward various applications. Order and arrangement of the metals in the secondary building units (SBUs) greatly influence the MOF structures outcome. While most of the previous heterometallic MOFs either have multiple kinds of discrete SBUs with different metals, or single kind of SBU with mixed metals inside, other forms of metal distribution still need further exploration. Herein, a bifunctional linker is applied to achieving differential coordination toward different metals. With Ce and Cu serving as the carboxylate-philic and pyrazole-philic metal ions, three heterometallic MOFs (FDM-121—FDM-123) are synthesized. In addition to the common metal arrangement modes, the new MOFs provide a joint reticulation of a discrete SBU and an infinite chain-like SBU featuring different metals in FDM-121, and an assembly from heterometallic infinite chain-like SBU in FDM-122. This study demonstrates the potential of bifunctional linkers for the design and synthesis of heterometallic MOFs and opens up the possibilities to create MOFs with tailored properties for specific applications.
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Jihong YU
ISSN 1005-9040
CN 22-1183/O6
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